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You can make submissions to other journals here. Article Menu. Google Scholar. Silva, C. Lamoso, L. Schneider, H. Berezuk, A. Need Help? Support Find support for a specific problem in the support section of our website. Get Support. Feedback Please let us know what you think of our products and services.
Give Feedback. Get Information. Open Access Article. Charlei Aparecido da Silva. Lisandra Pereira Lamoso. Heverton Schneider. Physical Geography Laboratory. Adapted from Schneider In the academic literature we can find a wide range of studies in climatology which show that current land management methods are contributing to an increase in environmental impact on the planet.
This article aims to explain the characteristics and tendencies used in the territory of the administrative region of Grande Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the environmental implications of this process of land exploration. Then, we analyze several climatological surveys carried out by the physical geography laboratory of the Federal University of Grande Dourados and the socio-economic and environmental research group of Mato Grosso do Sul.
The demonstrate how important it is to develop strong measures to valorize environmental actions in the area. Climatic parameters can also exacerbate more extreme regional climate patterns, an exacerbation that has a strong spatio-temporal aspect, and also has a direct relation to the various climatological scales. This type of research is pioneering work in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and in Brazil, and it will contribute to further academic work which will discuss the important relations between land production and climate impact in the near future.
Keywords: planning culture; geographic climatology; Brazil planning culture ; geographic climatology ; Brazil. Introduction One can consider that studying climatology is a way to achieve better management of human activities in a territory, and the management of territories has been a challenge in the scope of climatology studies in Brazil. Following from this idea, it is clear that understanding regional climate parameters and how the ts of its scales occur are keys for territory management. In fact, we believe that it would be essential at the beginning of 21st century to improve and optimize human actions to prevent natural disasters due to extreme events.
More than that, we could also add that studies of regional climatology could help to seek adaptive measures as a function of the climate change scenario. Even with all the current technical, scientific and informational apparatus, there is a belief in the adaptive limit of human activities related to the characteristics of the climates on the planet. studies and debates on global climate have presented evidence of the importance of understanding potential human activities and their relation to the climate, this means that researchers easily see that there are limits to the relations between society and the climate.
In Brazil, the spatialization and specialization of agricultural production has increasingly taken into the climatic risk involved in the financing and production processes. As an essential element of the Brazilian trade balance, agricultural production, in form of commodities, incorporates the climate as an essential input, and in Brazil it works in the same way as those developed within government agencies such as the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation [ 1 ]. We consider that three aspects are essential Hot women only in Dourados new studying the climate and its effects on society: understanding climate nuances, their habitual behavior, as well as their exceptionalities.
These three aspects play a pivotal role in dealing with global climate change, especially concerning increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns on local scales. At the same time, local and micro scales have revealed changes in the climatic parameters, especially in territories where economic activities have led to a great change in their original pattern, either by the emergence of cities or by the removal of the primitive vegetation for agricultural cultivation.
The specific land studied in this paper—the Dourados region, located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil—is a territory with these cited characteristics, marked for the last four decades by the expansion of agribusiness, based on the extensive cultivation of soybean, corn, sugar cane and livestock Figure 1. Some regional researchers have demonstrated that this territorial configuration Figure 1 has a changed regional pluviometric regime [ 234567 ], and changed temperature and air quality patterns [ 8910 ], with the worsening, even, of the health of Hot women only in Dourados new populations of the cities that, in the surroundings, live daily through soybean, maize, sugar cane and livestock commodity production [ 568910 ].
Thus, this paper aims to reveal the temporal and spatial changes in the climatic parameters of the region of Dourados Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazilin order to discuss at what level these climatic changes are interrelated with the modes of production. Moreover, this type of production has been chosen due to the existence of only one development model, based exclusively on the consolidation of monocultural territories, understood here as the cultivation of only a few products—such as soybean, maize, sugar cane and livestock—which are used for large territorial extensions to export commodities.
This is a pioneer work within both the study area and within Brazil. The study area Figure 2 has a size of 37, km 2and an estimated population of approximatelyinhabitants [ 11 ]. This area covers 15 municipalities and is the second most populated micro-region in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. This state is the sixth largest Brazilian state in size withkm 2which is equivalent to the size of the United Kingdom or Germanyand has a population estimated at 2, inhabitants in It is the 21st most populous Brazilian state and has one of the lowest demographic densities, with approximately 7.
In the last forty years, agricultural productivity has increased for many reasons: a technical progress, through the use of machines and implements, and automation in planting and cultivation processes and irrigation techniques; b genetic improvements with varieties genetically adapted to the geographical conditions; and c phytosanitary actions.
In addition, we could highlight the adoption of modern transportation standards and logistical efficiency, credit expansion and subsidized resources, as well as the expertise, commitment and qualification of the workforce. We have to take into the need for knowledge and planning, once we consider that the world population of 7. Brazil has 0. The challenge for its agricultural production is to increase productivity, without needing to expand into ecosystems that may be socioeconomically profitable, but that currently have native vegetation cover, such as extensive areas of the Amazonian equatorial forest, or the Pantanal, for example [ 2 ].
Sugarcane, soybeans and corn are the three largest agricultural products and also constitute the products with the largest participation in the international commodity market in Brazil. The country ranks first in sugar exports million tonnesfollowed by India million tonnes and China million tonnes.
The first country in soy grain exports is the United States, followed by Brazil and Argentina. Regarding the ranks of corn production, Brazil is in the third position, after the United States and China [ 15 ]. Brazilian corn production is produced in two harvests: one between August and September, and another between March and July.
This production reinforces an extensive marketing and storage chain, which is monopolized by powerful cooperatives and grain trading companies such as Cargill, ADM and Bunge. We should also mention that beef Hot women only in Dourados new the most exported product in terms of value in Brazil, surpassing soybeans, maize and sugar.
This panorama of world production indicates the composition of Brazilian agriculture, which is predominantly marked by the production of commodities. The fact is that commodities have two important implications: firstly, more technical, comprising products with standardized characteristics and low added value can be produced, transported and marketed on a large scale, and are governed by prices established in stock exchanges.
This market competition is based on the cost of production, instead of the differentiation of products. Therefore, the cost of production is crucial for calculating earned income. A second implication is that the commodity process assumes knowledge of the notion of competitiveness as a geographic expression of production, related to international quality and cost parameters and corporate circulation [ 16 ].
When we are discussing the scale of production and other characteristics, we have a commodity that is not absorbed by the local or regional market, once we take into a scale of consumption that goes beyond the environment and is invariably tied to international parameters.
The commodity requires large-scale production and transportation; prices are set by buyers, and require intensive use of other natural resources. This does not mean that technological development cannot be incorporated. One can understand that even commodity-based economies can drive research and development investment not only in the product itself but also in every chain that involves transport and storage with increasingly modern techniques for efficiency gains.
The variation in commodity prices responds directly to international demands, to financial flows and also to the interest of corporations in the sector. It is worth mentioning that grain production is characterized by intensive mechanization, as well as by close dependence on inputs and scientific knowledge, such as the use of genetically engineered seeds.
We highlight the geographic region of Dourados Mato Grosso do Sul in this paper because it presents the characteristics of the large-scale production of maize, soybean and sugar cane. Corn and soybeans were produced in the central south of the state in the late s, sharing space with extensive cattle ranching. By that time, they had replaced the commercial cultivation of yerba mate and, later, rice and some coffee Hot women only in Dourados new.
The growth of coffee strains was eliminated after the frost, which decimated the Hot women only in Dourados new plantations in the far south of the state. The expansion of soybean cultivation was determined by a set of factors, such as [ 19 ]:. This set of factors was determining for the expansion of grain cultivation throughout the south of what was formerly known as Mato Grosso state and which is currently called Mato Grosso do Sul state [ 19 ].
Every region in Mato Grosso do Sul has grain production corn and soybeanbut there is a core area with more specialized production, as evidenced by storage, transport and commercialization, networks, service support, and the improvement of cultivation practices. Two other representative products of southern Mato Grosso do Sul agribusiness are sugar cane and eucalyptus eucalyptus is being inserted for the massive production of cellulose.
Sugar cane production began its expansion inin the southern portion of the state, where the ethanol, sugar and biodiesel central plants are concentrated. The percentage of sugar cane gross production of Mato Grosso do Sul is 5. The four products mentioned soy, corn, sugar cane and eucalyptus represent an important part of agribusiness, which bases its productive structure in basic products. However, this mode of production, intrinsically related to the global market, has a high ecological footprint, which can alter the physical configuration of ecosystems and has effective power to modify the climatic configurations of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.
In this work, dissertations and articles developed by the physical geography laboratory at the Federal University of Grande Dourados, as well as studies developed by a group of social, economic and environmental researchers of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul are the main source of regarding possible regional climatic change that could be related to local land use or the land use of the nearest regions l [ 245678910 ].
Sincethese studies focused precisely on the dialectic relation between climatology and regional economic production. These materials aim to reach a better understanding of the gradual social—environmental and social—climatic Hot women only in Dourados new on the Dourados region and the south-central region of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. These publications comprise a wide range of the different types of statistical methods used in climatology Table 1 :. The state of Mato Grosso do Sul constitutes an extensive area of Brazilian territory that is in a legitimate area of climatic transition, because of the fact that it constantly suffers from the actions of tropical masses and masses of polar origin, in addition to frontal systems and the South Atlantic convergence zone SACZ.
In fact, twelve climatic units were identified in the Mato Grosso do Sul state due to its natural physical characteristics and latitudinal position. Among the air masses of tropical origin, there is the Atlantic tropical mass mTawhich has oceanic characteristics, but also often has dry and hot winds from the east and north-east, and the continental tropical mass mTcwhich is an area of barometric depression in the Chaco region caused by the intense warming of the interiors of Paraguay, Bolivia and northern Argentina.
In the Dourados region, mTc is responsible for long heat waves and for control of the drought period from June to September. With regard to the polar air masses, the Atlantic polar mass mTa is well known, being usually cold and dry with greater performance in the winter period. The clash between the polar and tropical air masses, and their strong convection processes, in turn, cause cold fronts, which are vital for the genesis of rainfall in the state during the course of year, as are the air masses cited.
The SACZ South Atlantic convergence zone is also important, as it brings the Amazon and Atlantic Ocean humidity that is responsible for the occurrence of convective rains, especially in the months of April, May and June, that is, in autumn. The central and southern parts of Mato Grosso do Sul have a more homogeneous pluviometric rhythm than the northern areas, due to the greater performance of the cold fronts to the south and a more evident orographic process in the central and southern sectors of the region, due to the elevation of the Amambai mountain, an elevation that does not exceed an altitude of m [ 22627 ] Figure 3.
However, this region has a greater period of rainfall from October to March and a period of drought from April to September, which is characteristic of a tropical climate very well marked by the rainfall regime. The variation of annual rainfall volume is between mm in the northern sector of this region and over mm in the Amambai sector [ 27 ] Figure 3with the presence of regular rainy periods between October and March, followed by drier periods; we can see this as a fundamental factor regarding the presence of properties oriented to agribusiness.
With an appropriate climate and a privileged topography, which encourages the mechanization of crops, the region is one of the most valued regions in Brazil for agribusiness, and therefore for the export of commodities. The Dourados region, as well as the south-central state of Mato Grosso do Sul, has undergone a ificant landscape transformation, referring to the tropical world, as we can see its modification from primitive vegetation to wide territorial extensions destined exclusively for agriculture and cattle raising.
In fact, we can observe various changes in the climate of the area, from the past to the present, from the suppression of the primitive vegetation with its rich biodiversity, to the quality of the regional springs. This process of agricultural occupation and production is similar to the process of colonization of northern Parana and the interior of Sao Paulo between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which arrived late in Mato Grosso do Sul.
Thus, this region, which had dense forests until 80 years ago, has radically changed to an area of pasture and permanent crops, with a strong insertion, therefore, of the grain and animal protein market, especially since the s see Table 2. In principle, the most fertile soils red latosols were used for the planting of the temporary crops of corn, soybean, wheat and rice. Corn and soybeans were partially replaced by sugar cane, which was introduced only in the s.
With the high value of grain production for export and the animal protein market, encouraged by agricultural cooperatives, the entire Dourados region became an area with temporary crops, taking pasture areas, which caused a real metamorphosis in the environmental configuration of the area Figure 4Figure 5 and Figure 6. This environmental metamorphosis, spatialized in the Dourados region [ 5 ] Figure 4has modified and is still modifying the physical configuration of the landscape, influencing natural processes, modifying evapotranspiration rates and relative humidity levels and, gradually, changing the rainfall regime as well as the temperature behavior of the region.
This condition then could reinforce the discussion of the adopted development model whose main parameter is economic bias. More than that, this ideal of development does not converge with the principles of climate sustainability envisaged by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCCespecially in the area of the understanding and maintenance of the climate balance on a local scale and its articulation with the global scale.
The environmental impacts recorded in the study region are largely due to the inclusion and development of agribusiness, which has been sponsored by the Brazilian state since the s and which intensified in the s [ 29 ]. It is believed that this development model, based on agribusiness for commodity exports, has modified and is still modifying atmospheric patterns, mainly at the local and regional level, largely by altering the evapotranspiration process.
The annual average rainfall has not undergone major quantitative changes, at the same time, an increase can be noted in the of years between and where the mean values were below average [ 5 ]. In addition, there is a tendency to changes in the rainfall regime, especially in the summer and spring seasons, when mTc is more active and favors evapotranspiration and convective rains.
Extreme rain and summer events have become more pronounced in the region. This is the case for the southern sector of the Dourados region, where rainy periods tend to concentrate annual rainfall even more, resulting in an even more pronounced dry season autumn and winteras can be observed in the trend lines of Figure 7 [ 2 ].Hot women only in Dourados new
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