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Exposure to toluene by glue sniffing during pregnancy can cause intrauterine growth retardation, premature delivery, congenital malformations, and postnatal developmental retardation [ 53 ]. A syndrome resembling that of the fetal alcohol syndrome has been described in infants who had been exposed to toluene in utero [ 54 ]. The authors suggested that toluene and alcohol have a common mechanism of craniofacial teratogenesis, namely deficiency of craniofacial neuroepithelium and mesodermal components owing to increased embryonic cell death.
The success of the modern chemical industry provides easy access to these substances as adhesives, dry cleaners, air fresheners, deodorants, aerosols and other products. Viscous products are taken from a plastic bag, liquids from a handkerchief or plastic bottle. The immediate euphoriant and excitatory effects give way to confusion, hallucinations and delusions as the dose is increased.
Chronic abusers, notably of toluene, develop peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar disease and dementia; damage to the kidney, liver, heart and lungs also occurs with solvents. Most deaths have been related to butane lighter fuel inhalation due to its particular tendency to induce cardiac arrhythmias. Death may also occur from acute intoxication impairing judgment, leading to accidents. Acute solvent poisoning requires immediate cardiorespiratory resuscitation and anti-arrhythmia treatment. Toxicity from carbon tetrachloride and chloroform involves the generation of phosgene, a First World War gas, which is inactivated by cysteine and by glutathione, formed from cysteine.
Recommended treatment is therefore with N -acetylcysteine, as for poisoning with paracetamol. Scott Bowen, Silvia L. These are all terms that have been used to describe inhalant abuse. But what exactly are inhalants? Inhalants are a special group of misused substances that are classified based on a common administration route rather than on similar pharmacological properties, toxicological profile, or shared mechanism of action.
As such, this category comprises a wide variety of chemicals with some physicochemical properties in common: they are volatile, flammable, and with high affinity for lipids. Some are gases, others become vapors at room temperature, and all of them are intentionally self-administered through inhalation to achieve intoxication.
Other features that make inhalants unique are that their possession is legal, they are easily available in many commercial products, and their psychoactive effects are almost immediate. This, together with the wrong perception that breathing vapors is rather harmless, contributes to a low-risk perception of inhalant misuse among the general population Cruz and Balster, James W. Most obtain a sensation of intoxication within seconds of inhalation and come to little harm.
The commonest substance abused is toluene. However, if the dose is too high, coma and convulsions may ensue and inhalation of vomit is a possibility. Since volatile substances particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines, cardiac arrhythmias may occur and cause a fatal outcome. Butane from cigarette lighter refills may be inhaled directly; the gas may cause asphyxia or its cooling effect may cause cardiac arrest through vagal inhibition.
Chronic complications of solvent abuse are unusual, but brain, liver and kidney damage have all been reported. Carcinogenesis has not been documented. Most axonal neuropathies are either hereditary or toxic. Glue sniffing is an example of a toxic cause. Some children have a progressive axonal neuropathy for which no cause can be determined. Progressive weakness of the feet, with or without sensory impairment, is often the initial feature. Electrodiagnostic studies in parents and siblings sometimes establish a hereditary basis. The EMG shows fibrillations and fasciculations, but motor nerve conduction velocity is normal or only mildly delayed.
The protein content of the cerebrospinal fluid is normal. Children with idiopathic axonal How to get high off of glue usually have a slowly progressive weakness unresponsive to corticosteroids. However, occasional patients do respond, and patients with a subacute progression deserve a 2-month trial of prednisone. These responsive cases may be variants of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, in which both axonal involvement and demyelination are present.
Kamel S. A year-old man with a known history of sniffing glue presented to the emergency room with profound muscle weakness and a very unsteady gait, which had become progressive over the last 3 days. Neurological examination revealed severe muscle weakness but no other findings. His arterial blood pH was 7. His P Glucose was 3. Other laboratory measurements in brachial venous blood and the urine are shown in the following table:.
Ataxia refers to impairment in coordination of movement without loss of muscle strength. Anticonvulsants Barbiturates. Heavy How to get high off of glue poisoning Lead. Substance abuse Alcohol. Glue sniffing. Encephalitis Herpesviruses. Head trauma Cerebellar hemorrhage. Tumor Posterior fossa. Congenital anomalies of the cerebellum Cerebellar dysgenesis. Amino acid disorders Urea cycle defects. Organic acid disorders Maple syrup urine disease. Pyruvate metabolism disorders Leigh disease subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy.
Conversion disorder or psychogenic causes. Children and particularly adolescents are prone to experimentation with a variety of potentially toxic agents. Glue sniffing is one of the best-known sources of an occult PNS toxin, and the astute physician needs to keep this in mind. It is also important that family and friends be questioned individually when attempting to establish the source of the neuropathy. An empathetic listener, as illustrated by the nurse in this instance, can often gain important diagnostic information. The of the clinical neurophysiologic studies described in Case Example However, most toxic polyneuropathies are associated primarily with axon loss.
Stephen R. Clough, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology Second Edition The acute toxicity of toluene in laboratory animals is very low. Much of the information on toxicity of toluene to humans comes from studies of solvent abuse such as glue sniffing and during exposure in the workplace e.
Interpretation of the data can be difficult due to the fact that these individuals are simultaneously exposed to mixtures of other chemicals. At — ppm, headache, nausea, eye irritation, loss of appetite, a bad taste, lassitude, and incoordination are reported but not accompanied by ificant laboratory or physical findings. Download as PDF. Set alert. About this. Organic solvents In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs Sixteenth EditionTeratogenicity and fetotoxicity Exposure to toluene by glue sniffing during pregnancy can cause intrauterine growth retardation, premature delivery, congenital malformations, and postnatal developmental retardation [ 53 ].
View chapter Purchase book. Inhalants Scott Bowen, Silvia L. Poisoning James W. Flaccid Limb Weakness in Childhood J. Diagnosis The EMG shows fibrillations and fasciculations, but motor nerve conduction velocity is normal or only mildly delayed. Management Children with idiopathic axonal neuropathies usually have a slowly progressive weakness unresponsive to corticosteroids.
Metabolic Acidosis Kamel S. Other laboratory measurements in brachial venous blood and the urine are shown in the following table: Venous Blood Urine pH 7. What dangers were present on admission? What dangers should be anticipated during therapy? What is the basis for the metabolic acidosis? Differential Diagnosis In Pediatric Clinical Advisor Second EditionAtaxia Ataxia refers to impairment in coordination of movement without loss of muscle strength.
Hypoglycemia Vitamin B 12 deficiency Vitamin D deficiency Amino acid disorders Urea cycle defects Hartnup disease Organic acid disorders Maple syrup urine disease Isovaleric acidemia Multiple carboxylase deficiency Pyruvate metabolism disorders Leigh disease subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency.
Toxic Neuropathies David Pleasure, in Neuromuscular Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Second EditionComment Children and particularly adolescents are prone to experimentation with a variety of potentially toxic agents. Toluene Stephen R. Human Much of the information on toxicity of toluene to humans comes from studies of solvent abuse such as glue sniffing and during exposure in the workplace e.How to get high off of glue
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Huffing Glue, Paint, and Cleaners: What You Need to Know About Inhalants